Angler's Aquatic Plant ID

Want to be a better fisherman? Learn smart, season-based strategies for fishing the “weeds.”

Across the country, they go by different names. Valley anglers often refer to them collectively as “weeds,” “grass,” or “moss.” Whatever you call them, aquatic plants are an integral part of the Tennessee River’s ecosystem, whether providing nutrients for the species at the bottom of the food chain, or cover and ambush areas for largemouth bass.

While many aquatic plants look the same, understanding the differences can make you a better bass fisherman. Whether you prefer to punch a jig, burn a lipless crankbait or fish a frog, this guide to aquatic plants in the Tennessee Valley can help you be the best angler you can be.

Developed by fishermen for fishermen, this guide gives you all the information you need to understand when these plants are most productive, where they grow and—most importantly—how to fish them. Whether you are a seasoned tournament angler, weekend warrior or new to fishing altogether, we invite you to learn more about aquatic plants and improve your catch.

Floating and Floating Leaf Plants

Common Salvinia

This invasive species (Salvinia minima) will rapidly form dense colonies in warm weather, and even heavy punching will do little to penetrate the plant. Some edge fishing may be available.

Common Salvinia

Seasonal Techniques

Spring—Native to tropics, common salvinia rarely overwinters in TVA system to continue growth in spring. Most plants are introduced annually from water gardens or isolated warm water areas. In late spring, existing plants can provide floating mats that can be targeted with flipping baits and jigs.

Summer—Will rapidly grow in system while weather is warm. Quickly forming dense colonies, even heavy punching will do little to penetrate within salvinia. Some edge fishing may be available.

Fall—Plants introduced in summer will maximize colonization by vegetative reproduction of new plants. Remaining colonies can be penetrated in late fall as the plants begin to die.

Winter—Preferring warm water, this species will quickly die off in winter. Fishing benefit is negligible.

Habitat Value

Fish—Can provide habitat during early introduction but speedy growth and expansion can cause fluctuations in water quality and shade out beneficial submersed species.

Waterfowl—No known food value

Identifying Features

What it Looks Like—A floating aquatic fern, common salvinia can be identified by its floating cupped fronds, which often appear hairy.

Where to Find It—This species thrives in calm, backwater areas but will begin to float throughout the reservoir with changing winds and currents.

Similar Species—Very similar to giant salvinia, but can be separated by an “T” shape to hairs within each frond. Giant salvinia is somewhat larger and hairs are shaped like egg-beaters.

Drawbacks

Although this species rarely overwinters in TVA systems, it could quickly become a problem species if it becomes more tolerant of a cold water environment. Cost to manage: $$$ out of $$$$$.

Shoreline Plants

Common Salvinia

This invasive species (Salvinia minima) will rapidly form dense colonies in warm weather, and even heavy punching will do little to penetrate the plant. Some edge fishing may be available.

Common Salvinia

Seasonal Techniques

Spring—Native to tropics, common salvinia rarely overwinters in TVA system to continue growth in spring. Most plants are introduced annually from water gardens or isolated warm water areas. In late spring, existing plants can provide floating mats that can be targeted with flipping baits and jigs.

Summer—Will rapidly grow in system while weather is warm. Quickly forming dense colonies, even heavy punching will do little to penetrate within salvinia. Some edge fishing may be available.

Fall—Plants introduced in summer will maximize colonization by vegetative reproduction of new plants. Remaining colonies can be penetrated in late fall as the plants begin to die.

Winter—Preferring warm water, this species will quickly die off in winter. Fishing benefit is negligible.

Habitat Value

Fish—Can provide habitat during early introduction but speedy growth and expansion can cause fluctuations in water quality and shade out beneficial submersed species.

Waterfowl—No known food value

Identifying Features

What it Looks Like—A floating aquatic fern, common salvinia can be identified by its floating cupped fronds, which often appear hairy.

Where to Find It—This species thrives in calm, backwater areas but will begin to float throughout the reservoir with changing winds and currents.

Similar Species—Very similar to giant salvinia, but can be separated by an “T” shape to hairs within each frond. Giant salvinia is somewhat larger and hairs are shaped like egg-beaters.

Drawbacks

Although this species rarely overwinters in TVA systems, it could quickly become a problem species if it becomes more tolerant of a cold water environment. Cost to manage: $$$ out of $$$$$.

Submersed Plants

Common Salvinia

This invasive species (Salvinia minima) will rapidly form dense colonies in warm weather, and even heavy punching will do little to penetrate the plant. Some edge fishing may be available.

Common Salvinia

Seasonal Techniques

Spring—Native to tropics, common salvinia rarely overwinters in TVA system to continue growth in spring. Most plants are introduced annually from water gardens or isolated warm water areas. In late spring, existing plants can provide floating mats that can be targeted with flipping baits and jigs.

Summer—Will rapidly grow in system while weather is warm. Quickly forming dense colonies, even heavy punching will do little to penetrate within salvinia. Some edge fishing may be available.

Fall—Plants introduced in summer will maximize colonization by vegetative reproduction of new plants. Remaining colonies can be penetrated in late fall as the plants begin to die.

Winter—Preferring warm water, this species will quickly die off in winter. Fishing benefit is negligible.

Habitat Value

Fish—Can provide habitat during early introduction but speedy growth and expansion can cause fluctuations in water quality and shade out beneficial submersed species.

Waterfowl—No known food value

Identifying Features

What it Looks Like—A floating aquatic fern, common salvinia can be identified by its floating cupped fronds, which often appear hairy.

Where to Find It—This species thrives in calm, backwater areas but will begin to float throughout the reservoir with changing winds and currents.

Similar Species—Very similar to giant salvinia, but can be separated by an “T” shape to hairs within each frond. Giant salvinia is somewhat larger and hairs are shaped like egg-beaters.

Drawbacks

Although this species rarely overwinters in TVA systems, it could quickly become a problem species if it becomes more tolerant of a cold water environment. Cost to manage: $$$ out of $$$$$.