The TVA Quilt
A modernistic quilt, made in the 30s by wives of men working on Wheeler Dam near Muscle Shoals, Ala., represents support and guidance of the African-American community by TVA.
Enter the west tower concourse of the TVA building in Knoxville, Tenn., and you’ll pass a striking piece of art: A quilt, quite modern in appearance, depicting a man in mid dance, clutching what appears to be a guitar in one hand and pointing toward the earth with another. You might think, as many employees and visitors do, that it’s a depiction of Elvis, perhaps made in the late 70s or early 80s after his death.
You’d be wrong.
Look more closely, and other details emerge. The man is surrounded by lush and plentiful vegetation. He’s being watched by another voluptuous figure to his right—face high in the sky. The sun is rising in full glory between his dancing legs, which stand on water. And one star-spangled arm is reaching into the quilt from the left-hand side, touching the man on the shoulder. Clearly, this isn’t Elvis, but some other blessed everyman.
What is this quilt?
It is a piece entitled “Uncle Sam’s Helping Hand,” designed in 1934 by Ruth Clement Bond and quilted by Rose Lee Cooper, whose husbands were then working on the construction at Wheeler Dam in Muscle Shoals, Ala. It has also come to be known as The TVA Quilt.
Ruth Bond, designer of the quilt, was the wife of Dr. J. Max Bond, the highest-ranking African-American officer at TVA at the time. Dr. Bond, a personnel officer, presented the quilt to TVA President Arthur E. Morgan in 1935, noting that quilting was one of several handicraft projects undertaken by Wheeler Dam wives:
“As you know, the wives of the workers in the Muscle Shoals area are organized into clubs, into what we call TVA clubs, seven in number. One of their projects is an attempt to revive the arts and crafts that were known to the Negro race during slavery. They further are attempting to use their handicraft to express the part that the Negro is playing in changing the South.”
Before she moved to the Shoals with her husband, Ruth Bond had grown up in urban areas, and had earned both a bachelors and masters degree in English from Northwestern University. She was fascinated by the handicrafts she was exposed to in the comparatively rural South, and inspired to combine tradition with the modernistic ideals of TVA.
The intention behind the work of The TVA Quilt was to depict both the African-American culture at that time, and the availability of support and guidance for that community through the Tennessee Valley Authority. “It has a hopeful message,” Bond once said of her work. “Things were getting better, and the black worker had a part in it.”
The vegetation and water on the quilt represent the natural beauty and abundance of the Shoals area surrounding Wheeler Dam, being developed then for uses such as energy production, soil conservation and natural preservation. Altogether, it is a surprisingly timely depiction of TVA’s focus even today on energy, environment and economic development.
The Unified Development of the Tennessee River plan
stressed TVA was to provide flood control, navigation and electricity for the region. TVA’s dams are tangible evidence of its primary mission: improving life in the Tennessee Valley. We’re celebrating the plan with an in-depth look at 32 of the dams it comprises.
Facts About Wheeler Dam
• Located on the Tennessee River at river mile 274.9 in Lauderdale and Lawrence Counties, Ala. It lies 29.5 miles below Decatur, Ala.; 95 miles north of Birmingham, Ala.
• The dam is 72 feet high and stretches for a total length of 6,342 feet over the Tennessee River.
• Construction of Wheeler Dam started in 1933, the dam was closed in 1936. At peak, 5,500 employees were involved in construction efforts.
• The four original hydro units went into commercial operation between 1936 and 1941. Four additional units were placed into commercial operation between 1948 and 1950. The last three units were placed into commercial operation in 1962 and 1963.
• The original lock went into operation when the dam closed in 1936. A larger, modern lock was placed into operation in 1963.
• The reservoir is 74.1 miles in length with 1,027.2 miles of shoreline and a surface area of 67,070 acres. Wheeler has a storage capacity of 326,500 acre feet.
• Wheeler Dam was named for Joe Wheeler, who was a general in the Army of the Confederacy and a leader of the U.S. Volunteers in the Spanish American War. General Wheeler also served in the U. S. Congress and in 1898 introduced a bill providing for the development of Muscle Shoals as a power/navigation project. Although no construction was undertaken, this bill was the first of the series which ultimately led to the passage of the Tennessee Valley Authority Act in 1933.